Added: Dariel Dyson - Date: 06.09.2021 16:29 - Views: 40217 - Clicks: 8904
We now know that this is not possible working with domestic descendants only, as the subject is much more complicated than just uniting visible traits found in primitive breeds. Nowadays the main purpose of this method is to authentically replace the extinct wildtypes in the wild, filling the empty ecologic niche. In order to accomplish that, the set of criteria now also includes ecologic traits. Achieving that is not a big problem, was most primitive breeds already are very hardy landraces. For this question, the answer is pretty clear: no, it is not necessary. Releasing a couple of hardy landraces back into the wild would do the job as well, no elaborate selection on wildtype traits is actually necessary for these animals to survive in nature.
While it is true that large, long-legged, athletic cattle with large horns will have a much easier time to defend themselves against predators than small, short-legged cattle without horns, natural selection will probably enforce wildtype traits anyway. Also, many landraces are already quite aurochs-like, such as Sayaguesa for example. They breeding season game blogspot large, have a comparably aurochs-like morphology and horns, and the colour is right as well except for the very reduced sexual dichromatism. Add Maronesa genes by releasing both breeds in the same area and most aurochs fans will be satisfied.
The same goes for Spanish fighting cattle Lidia. The probability that they survive in nature and function like their extinct ancestor is very high, as there are feral cattle populations that descended from derived breeds that were not landraces such as on the Ile Amsterdam or New Zealand. So just releasing a of cattle from several primitive landraces and letting them breed for themselves and do their thing in natural areas will do the job sufficiently in any case.
I have the suspicion that this is the plan the Tauros Programme. So far, they have done exactly that and nothing more at least nothing that they have published.
I see three main reasons:. If the cattle are heterogeneous in appearance they would look more like a bunch of escaped farm cattle, while the phenotype of the aurochs was undoubtedly that of a wild animal. There are indeed people who are against using cattle or horses in rewilding because they consider it animal cruelty to let domestic animals live in the wild. But having a breed of cattle that breeding season game blogspot as aurochs-like as possible certainly has some advantages.
In the end, it is about authenticity. An authentic proxy for the aurochs is more satisfying for nature lovers, has a higher chance of being accepted as a wild animal in the public eye, is more educative, and probably has a higher ecologic fitness compared to randomly chosen landraces due to the selective advantages a wildtype-like phenotype likely has. It is also a matter of opinion.
Surely there are more pragmatic people that do not care that much about authenticity, but there are also perhaps more idealistic people that do want to replace the aurochs as authentically as breeding season game blogspot. Surely, zebus have undesired traits, such as the zebuine hump, hanging ears or the adaption to hot, arid climate and hence a coat that would be insufficient for European climate. And what is very interesting is that zebus seemingly share wildtype alleles with the European aurochs that taurine cattle have lost .
I also consider the reverse possible, that taurine cattle have aurochs alleles that zebus lost, but that has not been proven genetically yet. But there is an even more important trait that zebus could contribute that was not considered yet: an aurochs-like ratio of trunk length to shoulder height ratio note: not withers height, that parameter is influenced by the height of the spines. In male aurochs the ratio wasin cows the trunk was even a little shorter.
For example, in the otherwise rather nice bull Darth Vader IIIthe legs are not long enough respectively the trunk is too long. In Lamarck, the best Taurus bull so far, the ratio comes closer to the aurochs. I used two photos to determine the ratio, one resulted in ,07 and the other one inIn the cows, the trunk is usually longer than the shoulder height too although it should be slightly shorter.
This is not surprising, considering that many of the primitive taurine breeds from Europe are imperfect in this regard. Sayaguesa, a heavily used breed that has many qualities, often has rather longish or short-legged bulls. Also, in Chianina, some bulls have indeed the ratio, others do not, it depends on the individual.
Lidia bulls are generally too short-legged, with a few exceptions. Maronesa, a breed that is wonderfully aurochs-like in many respects, usually has rather heavy and longish bulls too. The ratio is not perfect in Maremmana either, the same goes for their Hungarian sister breed Grey cattle.
An aurochs-like ratio for bulls and shorter for cows is simply hard to find even in primitive taurine cattle. But there are zebus with a very short trunk and pretty long legs, such as the breeds Deoni, HallikarHaryanaKenkhathaNagori and others. But I am not suggesting to using these breeds on a large scale.
With luck, the right trunk to shoulder height ratio gets passed on in the F2 while maintaining a more or less aurochs-like overall habitus. An individual like that could be useful for further breeding.
Undesired zebu traits would have to be bred out just as any undesired trait. The only real problem would be to get hands on these zebus. I guess importing them from India would be way too effortful and perhaps impossible due to the official disease requirements.
But perhaps there are zebu breeders in Europe already that have useful individuals. One would have to look for them. A ccording to a widely publicised study by Gaunitz et al. These horses were believed to be the earliest domesticated horses. This year, however, a study came out that calls the Botai domestication theory into question.
The main argument for a the Botai horses being domestic is dental damage believed to be caused by bridle mouthpieces. A study by Taylor and Barron-Ortiz found that this dental damage was more likely caused by natural tooth wear breeding season game blogspot. Furthermore, the mortality patterns of the Botai horses are not consistent with pastoral management .
Early ridden horses also show damage in the lower back area, which is not found in the Botai horses. And even more importantly, arrowhe were found in association with some of the specimen, which indicates that they were hunted. This is definitely not in line with the theory that the Botai horses were domesticated .
I hope this study gets as much attention as the Gaunitz et al. What is also interesting is that the time and place of the domestication of the horse is still unknown. The earliest unambiguous evidence of domestic horses is from the early decades of the second millennium BC . T he very popular anecdote for the origin of the Konik is that it descends from the last Polish wild horses kept in a game park in the 19 th century. This story is very common and even repeated in some scientific papers, although the evidence for this scenario is very weak.
Based on the historic and also genetic evidence, it seems that the Konik is nothing but a robust landrace with no close affiliation to alleged late-surviving Polish wild horses. There are, however, four papers that exanimate morphological details in several wild equines and domestic breeds that provide some clues that, it may seem, there is some truth behind the myth of the Konik because it displays several primitive morphological traits that many other domestic horse breeds do not.
Is it maybe not a myth after all? Two of those papers concern the neck anatomy.
In most domestic horse breeds observed the nuchal ligament lamellae attach from cervicals C2 to C5, with no attachments to C6 and C7. However, in two of four Konik individuals examined and one of one Bosnian Mountain horse, the lamellae attach also to C6 and C7 as in other equine species . So I did google search on the alleged affiliations of the Bosnian to the European wild horse. I do not know if there is any evidence for this story. Anyway, the authors conclude that the attachment of the nuchal ligament lamellae found only in those two breeds endorse the idea that these two breeds recently descended from European wild horses [1,2].
The other anatomical detail that is supposed to link the Konik to wild horses is found in the distal limb. The breeding season game blogspot muscles II and IV are thin ligamentous structures in most domestic horses, while in the Konik and Bosnian Mountain horse they are strong chord-like bands.
Does this mean that there is truth behind the alleged recent wild horse ancestry of the Konik and the Bosnian Mountain horse? At first glance it may indeed suggest that. But this is not necessarily the case.
Regarding the neck anatomy, the primitive condition was found only in half of the Koniks observed, while the other half had the domestic condition. Furthermore, the presence in the Australian Stock horse shows that it is not limited to the Konik and Bosnian Mountain horse. It might also be found other horse breeds that were not examined. About 20 domestic horse breeds were examined the Exmoor pony and Icelandic horse among thembut other breeds that might be interesting in this context were not.
Consequently, these primitive traits might be found in more landraces than just the Konik and Bosnian Mountain horse. Koniks with upright manes are, among other locations, found at Popielno, the most important Polish Konik breeding site where most Koniks imported to other countries come from , including Dutch Koniks used in the studies cited above.
A genetic test could bring clarification. In Germany, the situation is even more intransparent. Now there are several herds of either Koniks or Heck horses in Germany with upright manes and a nebulous history, such as these here.
The fact that the primitive condition of the neck ligaments was found in only half of the Koniks examined might endorse this explanation. Another possibility is, since the strong distal limb ligaments apparently serve a function according to the authors, that this primitive trait was never lost in the ancestors of Konik, Bosnian Mountain horse and whatever other landraces that might have them.
So that this trait was retained rather than the result of recent wild horse introgression. All in all, those studies do not necessarily suggest a recent wild horse ancestry for the Konik and the Bosnian Mountain horse. The Konik myth can only be true if 1. More breeding season game blogspot including other landraces would have to be done in order to clarify that.
But as most of my readers will know, this view has been challenged in recent years. A study by Gaunitz et al. Domestic animals all show similar traits as a result of domestication. Even feral domestic horses, such as mustangs in North America or brumbies in Australia, show vestiges of domestication f. All known individuals seem and seemed to be of the bay dun base colour, which is also found in other equine species such as the kiang or onager. While domestic stallions reach maturity between the This is not that much of a difference, but it is later. It is not known how long it took predomestic horses to reach maturity.
Sexual dimorphism is not as considerable in equines as in, for example, wild bovines.Breeding season game blogspot
email: [email protected] - phone:(434) 925-7706 x 9603
The Breeding-back Blog