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Added: Babatunde Porterfield - Date: 18.12.2021 18:28 - Views: 32258 - Clicks: 1682

Try out PMC Labs and tell us what you think. Learn More. Ava Hamilton, ude. Gregory Hanson, moc. Adina Bitfoi, moc. Dietmar Golitz, ed. Rowella Kuijpers, moc. Sigita Lesinskiene, tl. Zlatka Mihova, gb. Roy Otten, ln. Christophe Fermanian, rf. Ondine Pez, moc. Video games are one of the favourite leisure activities of children; the influence on child health is usually perceived to be negative. The present study assessed the association between the amount of time spent playing video games and children mental health as well as cognitive and social skills. Child mental health was assessed by parents and teachers using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire and by children themselves with the Dominic Interactive.

Child video game usage was reported by the parents. Teachers evaluated academic functioning. Multivariable logistic regressions were used. Factors associated with time spent playing video games included being a boy, being older, and belonging to a medium size family.

Having a less educated, single, inactive, or psychologically distressed mother decreased time spent playing video games. Children living in Western European countries were ificantly less likely to have high video game usage 9. Once adjusted cartoon sex video game child age and gender, of children, mothers age, marital status, education, employment status, psychological distress, and region, high usage was associated with 1. Once controlled for high usage predictors, there were no ificant associations with any child self-reported or mother- or teacher-reported mental health problems.

High usage was associated with decreases in peer relationship problems [OR 0. Playing video games may have positive effects on young children. Understanding the mechanisms through which video game use may stimulate children should be further investigated.

This assessment was based on a Kaiser Family Foundation survey of more than youths 8—18 years old which revealed that children and teenagers in the US spend an average of 7 h per day with a variety of media.

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The Council recommended limiting media time to 2 h per day for children and suggested that pediatrician or family practitioners inquire about media exposure during visits to educate parents on recommended guidelines and on health risks associated with exaggerated exposure. In the European Union EUvideo games are very popular across age groups and socio-economic. An EU council resolution is in place to rate video games and provide warning labels regarding violence or adult content, allowing parents to decide which games are appropriate for their.

This resolution has since been extended to 20 Member States. Furthermore, 15 EU States have legislation concerning the sale of video games with adult content to minors in stores, although the scope of this legislation varies greatly between Member States. For instance, Germany, Ireland, Italy and the UK have banned certain violent video games, while other countries have not. Despite these efforts to control access to violent or inappropriate games in the EU, no recommendations have been issued towards physicians to provide guidelines on how media exposure should be addressed with the parents during routine health examinations.

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The effect of video games on child mental health has been researched relatively thoroughly over the past few decades with regard to the time spent playing video games, and the effects of sometimes violent, ultra-realistic video games. However, this elevated risk was not replicated in other countries. A large Canadian study showed non-ificant or even inverse associations between video game use and depression or binge drinking, while it was ificantly associated with increased risk of obesity [ 4 ].

Violent video games were also reported to desensitize children towards violence and to decrease morality and empathy [ 5 ]. Finally, other studies reported addictive behavior associated with video games comparable to substance dependence [ 67 ] along with its negative consequences. A meta-analysis [ 8 ] indicated that video games might not lead to aggressive behavior, and suggested that playing video games may even help children to express their aggression, suggesting that they could even be used for health education.

However, data from this meta analysis were limited to adolescents and young adults, yet children as young as 8 or younger have access to those games and have not been thoroughly studied cartoon sex video game more recent data has shown that the influence cartoon sex video game media such as video games and TV on children is not uniformly negative [ 9 - 12 ]. This is an important gap in the literature given that patterns of media use may be established during this developmental window, and it is also a critical window for the onset of childhood mental health problems.

To our knowledge, the present study is the first ever to utilize survey data on more than European schoolchildren aged 6—11, across six countries representing very diverse cultural contexts to investigate the association between video game use and mental health. The objectives are 1 to determine the amount of time spent on video games by primary school children in diverse European countries, and to examine the determinants of video game use; 2 to determine whether high video game use is associated with decrease academic performance; and 3 to investigate whether high video game use is associated with mental health problems.

Details on country-specific sampling are provided elsewhere [ 13 ]. Briefly, approximately 45—50 schools were approached per country a greater of schools were approached in Germany and The Netherlandswith varying participation rates from 6. Schools were selected randomly though they were not selected to be representative of the country. Classes were then randomly selected within each participating school. Approximately 48 children were then randomly selected in each school.

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One exception is in The Netherlands, where a smaller of schools participated and complete classes were included. Parents received a letter describing the study and a consent form to be returned to the school. Children were included if they were present on the day of the assessment, unless their parent actively refused.

Among participating schools, between The total sample size was for teacher-reported outcomes and for mother-reported outcomes. Among those with both informants, we restricted the dataset to include only mother respondents The final sample included in the present study is In each country, data were collected from the child, the teacher and the mother.

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The mothers completed self-reports documenting socio-demographic variables such as household composition including age, gender and parental status for each memberparental education highest level completedmarital status, occupational level professionally active vs inactiveas well as the MH5 a subscale of the SF36 1 [ 14 ] assessing psychological distress.

In The Netherlands the same questions were completed electronically using a secured website, though paper questionnaires were made available upon request. Parents were asked how long their child spends playing video games on average during the week.

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We used tertiles of reported time spent for analyses based on distributions in the data and preliminary analyses. Cartoon sex video game SDQ has been validated in a of languages and has been used extensively in Europe [ 17 - 20 ]. The parent and teacher versions of the SDQ include a brief questionnaire divided into five subscales for which the author provided cuts points in order to define normal, doubtful and probable cases of emotional problems, hyperactivity and inattention, conduct problems, peer relationship difficulties, and pro-social behaviors. A total difficulties score was computed, excluding pro-social behaviors and peer relationship difficulties with cut points for parent and teacher evaluations.

These responses were scored as recommended [ 15 ]. Of the subjects with a maternal response, also had a full teacher report. A voice-over asks the child if she or he cartoon sex video game, feels or thinks similarly. Children completed the DI individually on a computer station at school under the supervision of a research assistant. The DI has been validated in several studies and has been found to be more reliable than structured interviews in the assessment of mental health in young children.

A recent study established the construct validity of the DI among the seven participating countries [ 24 ]. An additional question evaluated the child motivation to succeed at school. A personal letter allowing for a written refusal informed parents. Surveys were completed in anonymity and no names were available on the questionnaires sent to the research team. Each country received the support of their government, and minister of education and obtained the support of relevant ethical committees.

In addition, ethical committees were given their approval in each of the countries except Germany where the school authorization clearly mentioned in its text the ethical conditions for the authorization and Turkey where such committee does not exist but a parental ed consent form was mandatory.

No child was obliged to participate; any refusal to participate will have stopped his or her participation. Statistical analyses were performed using SAS V9. Statistical ificance was evaluated using 0. Data were weighted to correct for size of schools and probability of child selection.

A table available online presents the demographic characteristics of the final sample. There were ificant differences with regard to age with a higher mean age in Eastern Europe 8. Differences were also observed regarding gender and of children in the family with Eastern Europe having a higher percentage of families with four or more children.

In addition, the Western European sample had a ificantly lower percentage of mothers living apart from the father when compared to Eastern Europe. Mothers in the sample were also ificantly more educated in Western Europe as well as ificantly older with an average age of Among the high usage category, very few children played more than 20 h 0.

The remaining, Table 1 shows that most demographic characteristics were associated with video-game usage. Factors associated with increased usage included being a boy, being older, belonging to a medium size family.

Conversely, a less educated, single, inactive, or psychologically distressed mother decreases the probability of high usage. Children living in Western European countries were ificantly less likely to be high users as compared to their Eastern European peers 9.

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High usage was associated with good intellectual functioning and academic achievement Table 2. Motivation to succeed at school did not vary as a function of usage data not shown. Table 3 shows that in univariate analyses, playing video games was associated with a lower prevalence of self-reported internalizing disorders and fewer reports of thoughts of death. There were no ificant associations with any SDQ dimension: emotional, ADHD, conduct, peer relationship, total difficulties as reported separately by the mother or the teacher tables on request.

Children whose mother and teacher both reported as having problems with peer relationships or with an elevated total difficulties score were less likely to be in the high usage group Table 4. Prosocial deficits were also milder among those with moderate video game usage OR 0. In a sample of over young children across six European countries, high video game usage playing video games more than 5 h per week was ificantly associated with higher intellectual functioning, increased academic achievement, a lower prevalence of peer relationship problems and a lower prevalence of mental health difficulties.

High video game usage was not associated with cartoon sex video game increase of conduct disorder or any externalizing disorder nor was it associated with suicidal thoughts or thoughts of death. Controlling for demographic and other risk factors explained part of the association between video game use and protective associations in mental health and cognitive function, nevertheless all these relations particularly cognitive functioning persisted despite control.

These findings are in line with several studies. Dorman [ 8 ] reviewed several studies conducted on children which reported that video gaming seemed to increase prosocial skills. For example, in a free play setting, young children ages 4—6 displayed an increase in violent behavior as well as in prosocial behaviors after playing violent games. A Japanese study of kindergarten children found that those who played video games had more friends and were more willing to talk to others [ 26 ]. The authors concluded that playing video games is today, even more so than in the past two decades, a highly social activity for most children as the vast majority of children play their video games with a friend.

Some games explicitly reward effective cooperation, supporting and helping behavior [ 28 ]. In addition, playing prosocial video games increased prosocial behaviors: children who frequently played prosocial video games were more inclined to engage in helpful behavior later in the year [ 29 ]. Children who engaged in social interactions while playing video games were also more likely to take an interest in civic engagement once adults.

Violent and nonviolent games appear to be equally predictive of such involvement. The same review [ 27 ] reported cognitive benefits of video games as children developed problem-solving skills and enhanced creativity. In addition, children seemed to develop beliefs about their intelligence and abilities that affected their level of achievement, which extended beyond their performance on video games and applied to school activities.

An important future direction of this work is to determine whether there are differential associations between video game cartoon sex video game and childhood health outcomes depending on the content of the game; for example, whether violent content specifically vs more complex cognitive problems solving tasks differently predict health outcomes.

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