Added: Ashleyann Sobers - Date: 02.08.2021 19:16 - Views: 21969 - Clicks: 9505
In digital games, sex is often confined by medial references and mechanical impositions. Tanya Krzywinska, in The Strange Case of the Misappearance of Sex in Video Gamesexplains that games often obscure representations of sex and minimize playing sex. Game series like Mass Effect use cinematic techniques such as the fade to black to allude to the climax to come, whereas games like Playboy: The Mansion abstract sex into the act of two characters comically bouncing on each other.
And when sex is featured as something for players to perform, it often emerges as a mini-game in which the play is restricted by a series of button inputs, from its origins in the bedroom of Virtual Valerie to the more recent versions seen in the God of War games until Far from an emergent, improvisational process, sexual actions in video games feel decidedly assembled and constructed; consider the Second Life universe, where sexual positions are purchasable encoded processes within pose balls that repeat the same action, over and over again.
Yet despite procedural and medial impositions deed to control sexual play in digital games, fan communities have found their own ways to erotically engage within and outside the game, playing out their fantasies via emergent mechanics, in-game behavior, fan art, roleplaying, and fanfiction. While Overwatch has cultivated a massive fan community who are drawn to its diverse and non-normative characters, Blizzard Entertainment, the game s developer, has been decidedly coy about the sexualities and sexual habits of its cast, making only a few nods via comics and other supplemental media to their love lives.
As a Teen-rated cartoonish shooter meant to welcome the maximum of consumers, little within its deed world of play would seem to acknowledge sex. In the short story Bastethealslut game oral edition by Michael Chu and officially commissioned by Blizzard Entertainment, a specter follows Jack Morrison. Better known to the multiplayer first-person shooter Overwatch s player community as Soldier 76, Morrison is one of the game s lead protagonists and features prominently in the game lore.
Easy to learn and difficult to master, Morrison is a well-rounded offensive player whose balance makes him a common starting character for new players, and he is also featured as the first playable character that players use in the tutorial to learn Overwatch s mechanics and gameplay. His storyline focuses upon his tenure as commander healslut game oral edition the titular futuristic government defense agency, eventually leading to its collapse and Morrison s apparent demise.
Five years after his funeral, Morrison returns as a mysterious figure now known only as Soldier 76, who begins carrying out nonviolent raids on decommissioned Overwatch facilities. It would seem that 76 might serve as the series ghost, both haunted by amorphous neophytes and also haunting former allies and enemies who compose Overwatch s playable cast.
Yet 76 is not without his own phantoms. As we learn in Bastet, the specter of Morrison still lingers, and with him, 76 s unrealized future with a man named Vincent. Over the course of the story, 76 is wounded and forced into hiding along his former squadmate Ana; during this time, the two reminisce over photos of Overwatch and the relationships lost along the way.
In one photo, illustrated for the story, Morrison is depicted with his arm around another man. He reflects: Vincent deserved a happier life than the one I could give him. Jack sighed. We both knew that I could never put anything above my duty. Everything I fought for was to protect people like him That s the sacrifice I made.
Relationships don t work out so well for us, do they? Ana said, unconsciously running her thumb over where her wedding ring used to be. Morrison s ghost reminds Soldier 76 and Ana of everything sacrificed in the name of duty, yet on a larger intertextual level, it may potentially raise an ethical conundrum for Overwatch s players: what aspects of ourselves do we sacrifice in engaging with the game? Like Ana and Soldier 76, who find their identities at odds with their actions, Overwatch struggles with a strong case of dissonance between player action and its characters narrative identity.
Defined by Clint Hocking as ludonarrative dissonancewe can observe this effect at work in the in-game environments, which are sites where the Overwatch s cast suffered ificant traumas and triumphs. Rather than taking on the emotional and personal resonance we might expect a battlefield to have for someone who once fought and watched friends die there, these spaces are reduced to mere playgrounds for gleefully gibbing other players during game sessions. Team building runs into similar conflicts. Most importantly for this article, the romantic and sexual identities of the game s characters endure a similar dissonance.
While Overwatch features unlockable costumes and voice lines that gesture loosely towards characters sexuality, one of the few being the characters Reinhardt and Ana s flirtatious pre-game dialogue, these traces of sexuality simply vanish during gameplay. Where Reinhardt and Ana might coyly banter during one match, in the next they could be found driving bullet and hammer into the other s brain. In short, little, if any, options exist within Overwatch for characters or players to express or play their sexuality regardless of its presence within the game narrative.
This division between gameplay and sexuality has been commented on and enacted by Overwatch s de team. Remarking on his apprehension about Overwatch porn in an interview with Kotaku s Nathan Graysongame director and lead deer Jeff Kaplan commented on the place of pornography within Overwatch fandom, Nobody s trying to step on anybody s freedom of speech or any of that, like I totally love people s creative expression.
I would just say just be mindful that there are a lot of kids who are engaged with the franchise and as long as things are kept sort of away from healslut game oral edition, that s what s important. While keeping sexual content out of a game to broaden its potential audience might pass as a savvy business move, the issue is complicated by Blizzard s decision to issue cease-and-desist orders to adult content creators Chalk One order in.
Playwatch, which specifically targeted an adult audience with campy humor and fanmade content akin to that found on websites like DeviantArt, seems a curious case as it falls outside of Kaplan s alleged concerns with open displays of sexuality in the Overwatch universe. Possibly, then, it was Playwatch s decision to combine sexuality with gameplay that made it a target because the magazine violated the Overwatch team s vision of exclusive inclusivity. Kaplan explains that we ve always wanted Overwatch to be a very inclusive universe that inclusivity spans from game play styles, some people like to play support, some people like to play DPS, to genders and body types and different nationalities Kaplan.
In his description, as with Overwatch itself, there is an apparent division between gameplay and representation, where inclusivity spans from game play styles to genders and body types and different nationalities. Kaplan s phrasing, compounded by Blizzard s legal actions, thus divides gameplay from sexuality and embodiment.
In Overwatch players can choose their gameplay style and their avatar, but the idea of those elements connecting to sexuality within the space of an Overwatch match itself are things meant to be sort of kept away, in a manner of speaking. Perhaps somewhat ironically, then, one of the few ways in which Overwatch manages to suture players experience of gameplay and its characters narrative experience is through its division of sexuality and play a decision that has led many players to question, and Bastet to possibly attempt to address, why the sexual identity of its characters matters.
We might find answers to this question in the grieving expressed by Ana and Soldier 76 over their decision to play characters in Overwatch s narrative universe who are unable to summon anything but the ghostly memory their former partnerships. As Chu tweeted following the publication of Bastet, Jack and Vincent were in a romantic relationship many years ago ; his use of past tense and the story s implication that duty comes before sexuality should, for many players, encourage questions about the place of their own sexuality in Overwatch.
In healslut game oral edition ways, Ana and Morrison are mirrors held up to the player, and their grief can be read as a troubling reflection of the emotional experience of having to choose between sexuality or gameplay in Overwatch. Ana and Soldier 76 can either play the game. Must players make the same choice?
Can combat co-exist alongside sexuality? Such tensions are not unusual among fans who identify as part of marginalized communities seeking to find a space for themselves among the texts they love; yet such a challenge does not close off possibilities but rather opens unexpected doors to create, produce, and push back against systems that render such identities invisible.
Our article explores a thriving counterculture within the Overwatch player community called healsluts. The healslut community is an ongoing, evolving space of sexual play that doesn t end when the round is over. Despite Blizzard and its development team s best efforts at divorcing gameplay and sexuality, healslutting repurposes Overwatch and its mechanics into a space for sexual play.
We align the actions of the healslut community with acts of creative resistant fandom such as fanfiction, which as Christine Handley s examination of fan fiction within the Star Wars community healslut game oral edition allows fans to not pejoratively poach content, but provide a powerful reder to it The healslut community, in essence, performs an overall action of what J. L Barnes deems imaginative resistance that exists within fandoms, particularly when there appears to be a schism between what characters are claimed to be and what they actually do in the text healslut game oral edition Healslutting invites players to deploy elements of BDSM kink and sexuality not merely within the vocabulary and de of the game, but also in a communal paratext surrounding the game involving forums, voice chat, and viral fan-deed images.
Kishonna L. Gray notes the power of these larger paratextual networks via social media and other online platforms as a way for resisting masculine-normative hegemonic fandom in video games, allowing communities like women of color to push back against dominant narratives and create spaces inclusive of their identities Here, avenues like Reddit, Twitter, and until very recently Tumblr allow for healsluts to connect, commiserate, and adopt practices that allow for in-game communication. These players actively repurpose and pervert Overwatch s mechanics, creating a system of erotic roles and a shared community discourse which allows for pushing back against both the sterilized forms of sexuality that games offer and the means through which deers attempt to discipline sexuality.
In so doing, we hope to continue the work set forth by Bo Ruberg and Amanda Phillips healslut game oral edition their call for scholars to more closely healslut game oral edition acts of resistance in games in connection with gender and sexuality which challenge norms and undermine dominant structures of power here, in part, by embracing one s dominant or submissive playful side. The healslut community offers an example to us in game studies as to how to productively and provocatively.
The limited amount of scholarly material on Overwatch tends to focus on its roles within the world of e-sports or spectator gaming, such as Mark Johnson and Jamie Woodcock s analysis of Twitch noting that particular streamers have risen to rapid success on the back of such games as WarframeSuper Mario Makerand Overwatchoften having been broadcasting these games since the day they were released 7. Finally, Maria Ruotsalainen and Usva Friman s research recognizes the multiple player imaginaries attached to Overwatch s characters particularly the prevalent stereotype that all women play Mercy, a popular healer character within the game, as one such imaginary invented by the community.
Routsalainen and Friman explain that this imaginary within the community prominently re Mercy s players as feminine and boosted, accessing the gamespace through others males boosting them, revealing an implicit gendering that comes with the choice of character. These binarized gender dynamics, ironically, become a central destabilizing aspect of the healslut community s use of Mercy as its primary character; as this essay will explore, both male- and female-identified players turn to this feminine, supportive characterization as a subversively erotic element of play.
In these studies, Hopp and Fisher as well as Routsalainen and Friman tap into the lingering question of something being distinctive about Overwatch, a mix of its character de, possibilities of play, player imaginaries, and larger narrative opportunities which opens up something beyond the standard experience of a first-person shooter that, perhaps, being the prospect of roleplaying. Much of this is conveyed through the game modes, each of which features a distinct set of rules, play-styles, and objectives that players might encounter in a match.
Escort, for example, is a gameplay mode built around a moving point called a payload. Players must collaborate with their teammates to defend and push, a term for moving the payload forward by standing on or nearby it, the payload until it reaches its goal in the opposing team s base. Control, on the other hand, tasks a team with defending two to three specific areas on a map, which can be captured by the opposing team if they manage to stand on the area without being killed or moved off of the point.
Upon starting the game, however, the importance of playing a role quickly becomes apparent across at least three levels: communication, class, and character choice. Excluding the one versus one mode in Elimination, Overwatch is played almost entirely on teams of three or six. Victory in Overwatch s modes depends on teamwork, and the game demands intensive collaboration among a majority of players. These pressures encourage players to collaborate with each other during game sessions via in-game text chat or third-party voice chat applications like Discord, making Overwatch a game that mixes in-game and out-of-game identities.
Gameplay goes beyond the character that players choose and extends to aspects like players tone of voice, word choice, media sharing for example, providing maps and other resourcesand a cluster of other performances not strictly limited to the gamespace. Players are not just identified by who they play as, but how they embody those characters both through their gameplay within the game and in its backchannels while interacting with other players. Take, for example, the Competitive Play setting, which adds a of extra layers to the gameplay experience.
Competitive Play is a high-risk, ranked gameplay setting deed to offer players a serious experience and encourage team- and skill-intensive playstyles. The setting is deed for players looking to break into Overwatch s esports league on a professional level, and as a result, largely breeds a team-based version of what T. Taylor and Mia Consalvo respectively define as the power gamer whose gameplay experience is defined largely by mastery and victory. In Competitive Play, tempers run hot, voice comms are ideally supportive but uncompromisingly direct, and a single misplay can make the difference between platinum and gold rank for an entire team the setting is explicitly deed for a specific type of player.
Without the victory-driven pressures of Competitive Play, Quick Play allows a variety of play styles to flourish some of which are playful and lighthearted, while others are experimental and exploratory. Arcade, the final style, is deed entirely to support the latter play styles.
In Arcade, players can find and create game modes not officially in the game such as one-shot-tokill, zero gravity with Hanzo, the game s longbow user. Whereas Competitive Play demands a high level of obedience to the formal rules of play, and Quick Play is a bit looser in its demands, Arcade allows players to invent their own rules entirely. Thus, to say that Overwatch is a team-based first-person shooter radically reduces the layered complexity of its gameplay and player performances, as it potentially involves an ongoing process of communication and identity building through preferred play mode, style of play, text, voice, and even video feeds with other players.
Tony Manninen s Interaction Forms and Communicative Actions in Multiplayer Games identifies at least 12 different forms of play that facilitate the communicative and social aspects of digital games, many of which are necessary for players to be fluent in if they are to succeed in Overwatch. The player community has documented these aspects of gameplay in many of the player-produced strategy videos recorded to improve players skills. Whereas many of these videos recorded for other games focus on mechanical dexterity, the Overwatch videos focus on effective and collaborative communication skills especially during intensely competitive matches.
As YouTuber Dragonmar notes in their video 5 Minute Tips: Communication and Callouts, Talking like the ProsIn my opinion, communication is by far one of the biggest separating factors between high level players and high level play and sort of that bottom tier play. In addition to the key phrases that Dragonmar recommends players use during gameplay, much of the video is invested in identity building, talking players through the steps necessary to perform as a sociable player within the gamespace. Dragonmar states: I know not everyone s a people person, and it s hard for some people to talk, but I personally have forced myself to say hello to everyone in every single match I go into, and I feel like there s this psychological reasoning to it it sort of builds like this trust and it makes them like me and it puts some weight on my opinions because I do sort of take that in-game leader role.
Communication and Shotcalling Guide provides similar tips deed to help players are able to enact the persona of professional players through both their gameplay and their personalities. Such lessons, while fulfilling a pragmatic need. Once players have crafted their communication persona, the next choice facing most players is their in-game embodiment that they will occupy for the match: that is to say, they need to pick a character to play as.
Playable characters in the game, known as heroes, can be selected at any time before or during a match, and Overwatch currently features an expanding roster of 29 heroes. Characters are broken down into three main classes: Tank, Damage, and Support. Tank heroes typically serve as the team s metaphorical shield. Equipped with a large amount of health and attack-negating skills, these heroes keep the pain away from the more vulnerable Damage and Support heroes. Many of their skills are deed to protect friendly players while controlling the opposing team.
One such tank, the German armored fighter Reinhardt, has an ability called Barrier Field which is a giant, curved shield that covers Reinhardt and surrounding teammates, allowing him to escort other players through the opposing team s fire. Similarly, the Russian bodybuilder Zarya s Projected Barrier attaches a bubble shield to a distant teammate, allowing them to endure attacks without damage while powering up her own weapons with the absorbed energy from enemy shots.
Although many Tank heroes are slow and bulky protectors who are often easy targets, their presence is formidable and fatal if underestimated. Tanks can deal wide-ranging attacks debilitating many characters on the opposing team.
The South Korean pro-gamer D. Va s Self-Destruct launches her mech suit forward into a glowing ball of death for any enemy players in wide radius, while D. Va herself is ejected safely to the back. Alternatively, Australian insurrectionist Roadhog s Whole Hog fires a barrage of shrapnel in a wide cone, allowing him to deal ificant damage to a large group and push them back often off of edges and cliffs to their demise.
From patient protectors to hasty aggressors, tank gameplay thus allows players to adopt and express many different personalities through their gameplay. These personalities are added on to the communicative personas adopted in voice communication software, and this range of performed personalities can be found in each of the classes and nuanced even further through healslut game oral edition specific styles of gameplay offered in the unique set of abilities offered by each character. The traces of these gameplay-based expressions can be seen in the fan fiction produced by the Overwatch player community.
Within the community, characters like D. Va and Soldier 76 are given names unique to the personalities embedded within their play styles. Soldier 76, for example. In many fan produced comics, Soldier 76 is often depicted providing other characters with their lunch, and he can be seen reminding them that he has his eye on them, both of which reference his in-game ability to place a healing beacon on the map and his ultimate which automatically locks his aim on enemy players.
Similarly, Pharah is presented as gremlin D. Va s mother who looks out for her by providing an aerial barrage of Mountain Dew. The interaction is a reference to the dynamic shared between D.Healslut game oral edition
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